Introduction of Pakistan

Pakistan displays some of Asia’s most magnificent landscapes as it stretches from the Arabian Sea, its southern border, to some of the world’s most spectacular mountain ranges in the north. Pakistan is also home to sites that date back to word’s earliest settlements rivaling those of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.


Located in South Asia, Pakistan shares an eastern border with India and a north-eastern border with China. Iran makes up the country’s south-west border, and Afghanistan runs along its western and northern edge. The Arabian Sea is Pakistan’s southern boundary with 1,064 km of coastline.

The country has a total area of 796,095 sq km and is nearly four times the size of the United Kingdom. From Gwadar Bay in its south-eastern corner, the country extends more than 1,800 km to the Khunjerab Pass on China’s border.

Basic Facts


Official Name Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Father of the nation : Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)

National Poet Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938)

Head of the State President

Head of Government  Prime Minister

Capital Islamabad (See

Total Area 796,095 Sq. km.

Population 165 million (estimated)-132 million (1998 census) (See

Pakistan is divided into four provinces viz., Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan. The tribal belt adjoining Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa is managed by the Federal Government and is named FATA i.e., Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have their own respective political and administrative machinery, yet certain of their subjects are taken care of by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas. Provinces of Pakistan are further divided into Districts

Religion 95% Muslims, 5% others.

GDP 5.8%

Currency Pak. Rupee.


Industrial equipment, chemicals, vehicles, steel, iron ore,  petroleum, edible oil, pulses, tea.


Cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items  carpets, sports goods, handi-crafts, fish and fish prep. and fruit


Urdu (National)  and English (Official)

Literacy rate 53%

Government  Parliamentary form


Parliament consists of two Houses i.e., the Senate (Upper House) and the National Assembly (Lower House).

The Senate is a permanent legislative body and symbolises a process of continuity in the national affairs. It consists of 100 members. The four Provincial Assemblies, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Federal Capital form its electoral college.

The National Assembly has a total membership of 342 elected through adult suffrage (272 general seats, 60 women seats and 10 non-Muslim seats).

Pakistan National Flag

Dark green with a white vertical bar, a white crescent and a five-pointed star in the middle. The Flag symbolizes Pakistan’s profound commitment to Islam, the Islamic world and the rights of religious minorities.

National Anthem Approved in August, 1954
Verses Composed by: Abdul Asar Hafeez Jullundhri
Tune Composed by: Ahmed G. Chagla
Duration: 80 seconds (For more details click here)

State Emblem The State Emblem consists of:
1. The crescent and star which are symbols of Islam
2. The shield in the centre shows four major crops
3. Wreath surrounding the shield represents cultural heritage and
4. Scroll contains Quaid’s motto: Faith, Unity, Discipline (For more details click here) Pakistan’s Official Map

Drawn by Mian Mahmood Alam Suhrawardy (1920-1999)

National Flower


National Tree

Deodar (Cedrus Deodara).

National Animal


National Bird

Chakor (Red-legged partridge)


Pine, Oak, Poplar, Deodar, Maple, Mulberry


The Pheasant, Leopard, Deer, Ibex, Chinkara, Black buck, Neelgai, Markhor, Marco-Polo sheep, Green turtles, River & Sea fish, Crocodile, Waterfowls

Popular games

Cricket, Hockey, Football, Squash.

Tourist’s resorts

Murree, Quetta, Hunza, Ziarat, Swat, Kaghan, Chitral and Gilgit

Archaeological sites

Moenjo Daro, Harappa, Taxila, Kot Diji, Mehr Garh, Takht Bhai.

Major Cities

Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Multan and Sialkot

Major Crops

Cotton, Wheat, Rice and Sugarcane

Agricultural Growth Rate

4.1 % on the average for the last six years–1.5% in 2007-08

Total cropped area

25.01 million hectares


Textiles, Cement, Fertiliser, Steel, Sugar, Electric Goods, Shipbuilding

Famous Mountain Peaks



World Rating

K-2 (Chagori)

8616 m


Nanga Parbat

8125 m



8068 m


Broad Peak

8065 m



8047 m



7952 m



7925 m


Disteghil Sar

7885 m


Kunyang Kish

7852 m


Masherbrum (NE)

7821 m



7788 m


Batura I

7785 m


Kanjut  Sar

7760 m


Saltoro Kangri

7742 m



7720 m


Tirich Mir

7708 m



Famous Mountain Passes

Location Province
The Khyber Pass Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa
The Kurram Pass FATA
The Tochi Pass FATA
The Gomal Pass Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa
The Bolan Pass Balochistan
The Lowari Pass Chitral (Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa)
The Khunjrab Pass Northern Areas



Name Length
The Indus 2,896 km
Jhelum 825 km
Chenab 1,242 km
Ravi 901 km
Sutlej 1,551 km
Beas (tributary of Sutlej) 398 km


Famous Glaciers

Name Length
Siachin 75 km
Batura 55 km
Baltoro 65 km



Name Location/Province
Thar Sindh
Cholistan Punjab
Thal Punjab



Name Location/Province
Manchar Sindh
Keenjar Sindh
Hanna Balochistan
Saif-ul-Maluk Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa
Satpara Northern Areas
Kachura Northern Areas


Major Dams

Name Location/Province
Mangla Dam Punjab
Tarbela Dam Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa
Warsak Dam Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa